Aura

•March 16, 2011 • Leave a Comment

There is nothing “paranormal” in the Universe, except our limited understanding of Nature. What we think we “know” on Earth now is just a tiny drop in the Ocean of Knowledge.

In the distant past, people admired things they could not explain and called them “miracles”. Long ago, people were able to see Auras. Advanced spiritual people such as Buddha, and their immediate students were painted with golden haloes around their heads, because some artists could actually see Auras. In Australia remote West Kimberleys you can find prehistoric cave paintings (bottom left), many thousands of years old, depicting people with golden haloes. (photo courtesy G.L.Walsh) Nature gave us ALL we need to see Auras. All is required is the knowledge how to use your senses together with your conscious effort. If you decide not to try, you will NEVER see the Aura. On the other hand, when you SEE something for yourself, no longer will you need to rely on believing someone. You will KNOW. And you can use your knowledge to learn more.

Many great people in the past complained that “we have eyes and we do not see”. Further in this document you will discover what they meant.

ANYONE can see auras to some degree. Rather than create an aura of mystery around my newly acquired skill, my approach is to show everyone what their eyes are capable of. When nearly everyone (including children) sees a similar thing, I consider this a part of our Nature and I say that it deserves our attention.

What is the Aura ?
Everything in the Universe seems to be just a vibration. Every atom, every part of an atom, every electron, every elementary “particle”, even our thoughts and consciousness are just vibrations. Hence, we may define the Aura as a electro-photonic vibration response of an object to some external excitation (such as an ambient light for example). This definition is sufficient for the purpose of reading Auras, providing that we can train ourselves to see the Aura vibration.

The most important property of the Aura seems to be the fact that it contains INFORMATION about the object.

Aura around living (conscious) objects (people, plants …) changes with time, sometimes very quickly. Aura around non-living object (stones, crystals, water…) is essentially fixed, but can be changed by our conscious intent. Above facts have been observed by scientists in Russia, who have been using Kirlian effect to study Auras for the last 50 years.

The Aura around humans is partly composed from EM (electromagnetic) radiation, spanning from microwave, infrared (IR) to UV light. The low frequency microwave and infrared part of the spectrum (body heat) seems to be related to the low levels of the functioning of our body (DNA structure, metabolism, circulation etc.) whereas high frequency (UV part) is more related to our conscious activity such as thinking, creativity, intentions, sense of humor and emotions. Russian scientists, who seem to be about 3 decades ahead of everyone else in Aura research, make experiments suggesting that our DNA can be altered, by influencing its microwave Aura. The high frequency UV part is very important and most interesting but largely unexplored. And this part can be seen with naked eyes.

Why do we need to see auras ?
Colors and intensity of the aura, especially around and above the head have VERY special meanings. Watching someone’s aura you can actually see the other person’s thoughts before you hear them expressed verbally. If they do not agree with what this person is saying, you effectively see a lie every time. No one can lie in front of you undetected. We cannot fake the Aura. It shows our True Nature and intentions for everyone to see.

Also, aura is our spiritual signature. When you see a person with a bright, clean aura, you can be SURE that such person is good and spiritually advanced, even if he/she is modest and not aware of it. When you see a person with a gray or dark aura, you may be almost SURE, that such person has unclear intentions, regardless how impressive, eloquent, educated, “good looking” or “well dressed” he/she seems to appear.

It is ESPECIALLY important to check the aura of any religious leader, “spiritual teacher”, “master” or a “guru”. Such a person should have a clearly defined yellow-golden halo around the head. If he/she does not have it, you are MUCH better on your own.

Joining a sect or a religion that is led by incompetent people without good Auras is very dangerous for your consciousness. Where is the danger ? When the time comes to really use the information stored in your consciousness from this lifetime, there may be almost nothing useful there, if you focus your life on following rituals and the flock of other people. In such case it is necessary to re-learn everything from the beginning. Most sect, religion and political leaders have only two things in mind: money and power to control people. And you can SEE it in their Aura for yourself. Imagine changes on Earth if many people can see Auras of their leaders and start choosing them on the basis of their Auras.

By reading Aura it seems possible to diagnose malfunctions in the body (diseases) long before physical symptoms become evident. By consciously controlling your Aura you can actually heal yourself.

However, healing of the physical body is nothing in comparison to what seeing and reading auras can do for our consciousness, spiritual development and our awareness of Nature.

Everyone has an Aura. But most people on Earth have VERY WEAK and dull Auras. This seems to be a direct consequence of their life long materialistic attitude negating and suppressing the development of consciousness, cultivating fear, envy, jealousy and other similar emotions. Such attitude suppresses their True Nature, and their Auras seem to become suppressed too.

When you learn to see Auras, be prepared for a REALLY HARD question: “Can you tell me what my Aura is ?” and the situation when you don’t see any Aura or you see something you don’t want to talk about. One of the best answers I found is “why don’t you learn to see it for yourself ? “. And this is one of the main reasons why I teach people to see auras.

When people realize that their Aura is on display and many people are able to see it, they will watch what they think. And they will try to see and improve their own Aura. In the process they will become better and wiser, being able to recognize intentions of other people. Surely, the entire world will become much better if all people can see and read Auras.

Children and the Aura:
Very young children (up to 5 years of age) see auras naturally. Infants frequently look ABOVE a person in front of them. When they don’t like the color of the aura above the head, or if this color is much different from their parent’s aura, they cry, no matter how much smiling the person does.

Children have much cleaner and stronger auras than most of adults, who are usually completely enslaved by the materialistic world and suppress their Nature by following superficial examples. When I taught my 12 year old son to see his own Aura, he told me that when he was little he was able to see Auras most of the time. But no one paid any attention, so he thought that it was not important and maybe there was something wrong with his eyesight. This is a typical scenario. In my opinion children should learn to see and read Auras in a primary school, so they never lose this natural ability

.

Our Eyes
With our eyes we can sense (perceive) a very narrow range of vibration frequencies of ElectroMagnetic (EM) vibration corresponding to wavelengths from 0.3 to 0.7 micrometers – from purple to red. A mix of the vibration frequencies in the above range we perceive with our eyes as color. We can measure this mix precisely by recording a spectrum of light, but only using special instruments, called spectrophotometers.

Colors perceived by our eyes are only our partial perception of MUCH more complex reality : complex vibration of light (and other vibrations as well). To explain the above statement, we would need to define the spectrum and explain how we perceive color with our eyes.

How to see Aura: developing auric sight
In an effort to see the Aura we need to:

  • Increase the sensitivity of our eyes AND
  • Extend the range of perceived vibration beyond the visible light.

It seems that we can accomplish the above by:

  • Using and training our peripheral vision
  • Increasing exposure
  • Enhance visual sensation processing in the brain – enhance the communication between left and right hemispheres of the brain

Peripheral vision
Why should we use our peripheral vision? Our retina (the focal plane of the eye containing photosensitive cells) is less damaged there than in the central part. The central part of retina is constantly in use, and over the years suffers accumulated damage from excessive and/or artificial illumination (TV, computers, artificial light etc…). Also we have trained the central vision to be used in certain ways over the years.

Young children see auras much easier, because their central vision is not yet damaged. Once they go to school they are told to use their vision in a certain way, and gradually they lose their natural auric sight.

Increasing exposure
When we want to do a photo of a dark scene, we need to increase the time of exposure of the film. We can accomplish this for our eyes by concentrating exactly on ONE spot for a while (30-60 seconds).

When our eyes are moving, or a scene moves in front of our eyes, images are averaged by our eye. (25 TV frames per second seems a fluent motion). When we concentrate on one spot, we increase our sensitivity because we average the incoming light, cumulating its effect.

Our photosensitive cells (Red Green and Blue) operate as vibration sensors, much like 3 radio receivers tuned to 3 “colors” RGB. When you need to achieve a large vibration of , say, a swing – you can accomplish it using a very weak excitation force, but persist with it. Concentrating with your eyes on one spot you achieve a very similar effect: with a very small stimulation you can gradually swing your photo sensitive cells into large vibration, and this results in a visual sensation perceived by the brain.

Concentration exercise 1
Place the picture in Fig 1 about 1.5 m in front of you. Look exactly at the black spot for 30 seconds or so and observe colored dots with your peripheral vision. Resist temptation to look anywhere else but the black spot.


Fig 1. Image for concentration exercise


Note that colored areas seem to be surrounded by the “Aura” of a different color. When peripheral sensors are stimulated for some time, we have color sensations, much different than when we use the central vision. The longer you concentrate, the brighter is the “Aura” around colored areas, because your sensitivity increases. Yesterday you could look at this picture for hours and never see anything. Concentration at ONE spot for long enough is the key. Rather than the true Aura, this exercise demonstrates the principle of how to look to see human Auras by making you aware of certain specific capabilities of your eyesight and your perception.

Concentration exercise 2
This exercise aims to stimulate the communication between both hemispheres of the brain, thereby increasing the “processing power” needed to see Auras. Place the picture in Fig 2 about 1 meter in front of you. Stretch your hand forward so that one of your fingers is between and underneath circles.

Change focus on the tip of your finger and overlook the circles. You should see 4 circles. Then aim to overlap the middle two to see ONE CIRCLE WITH A WHITE CROSS on top of your finger, in the middle between the two. Seeing the cross is the evidence, that the left hemisphere of the brain (connected to the right eye) is communicating with the right hemisphere (connected to the left eye).

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

This exercise turns out to be extremely beneficial: 5 minutes of it seems to double the size of the electro-photonic aura as recorded by bioelectrography.

The cross will initially float and seem unstable. Experiment with the distance from your finger to your eyes to achieve a perfect cross. You gain a significant benefit after 3-5 minutes of maintaining a perfectly balanced cross, preferably without blinking, but a magic duration seems to be 45 minutes of concentration at the time, which is said to make a REAL difference to your mental and auric abilities.

In my experience it is best to start with a minute or two and gradually increase the time every week. Short and intensive concentration seems to be better than a longer one, interrupted by the lack of skill.

Gradually, with practice you should be able to achieve and maintain the cross without the finger. While maintaining the cross try to become aware of the other 2 circles as well as everything around using your peripheral vision. You should see Auric colors around the colored circles above with your peripheral vision. When you can analyze surroundings using your peripheral vision, without loosing the cross (and the concentration), you are ready to see and read auras.

Advanced levels of concentration :
One diameter in the cross seems usually “in front” of the other. This means, that one of your brain hemispheres seems to dominate the other. Males usually see the horizontal diameter above (left hemisphere dominates) females usually see the vertical diameter above (right hemisphere dominates).

Try to get the “hidden” diameter in front as much as possible, by concentrating, on demand. The final level of concentration is to achieve and maintain a perfectly balanced cross with all four arms of similar intensity, thereby achieving a perfect balance both hemispheres. Many people experience amazing effects here. Firstly, concentration gets much deeper. Secondly, after 2-3 minutes you seem like loosing sight, with bright background becoming dark purple or pink. Your sensitivity and awareness greatly increase.

Several people reported that wearing the Chakra Shirt significantly enhances such concentration, and my personal experience confirms this.

Colors and Auric Pairs

In concentration exercises 1 and 2 we noticed that real colors are surrounded with Auras of different colors. These auric colors are not random. Following is a list of Auric Pairs of colors for all clean colors of the rainbow (monochromatic colors).

red gives turquoise aura, turquoise gives red aura
orange gives blue aura, blue gives orange aura
yellow gives violet aura, violet gives yellow aura
green gives pink aura, pink gives green aura

The above table applies also to intermediate colors, for example yellow-green color gives a pink-violet aura. Note, that above Auric pairs are DIFFERENT than complementary color pairs, “color wheels” and “color spaces” promoted by the science and art on Earth. Every child can confirm that auric pairs listed above are true.

Seeing the Aura

This exercise is designed to see Aura for the first time and/or practice seeing Auras. Choosing good conditions is important: not only you see the Aura better, but also to gain a confidence about what you see.

1. Situate the person in front of a very softly illuminated PLAIN WHITE background. A color background will change Aura colors, so you need additional knowledge about combining colors. Some combinations of background and Aura colors may cause misinterpretation problems.

2. Choose ONE SPOT to look at. The middle of the forehead is VERY GOOD. This is a location of so called Brow Chakra or the Third Eye. In some cultures (India) they put a mark on a forehead. Such a mark in ancient times could mean the invitation to look and see the Aura.

3. Look at this spot for 30 to 60 seconds or longer

4. After 30 seconds analyze surroundings with your peripheral vision, while still looking at the same spot. Continuing the concentration is most important. Resist temptation to look around. You should see that the background nearby the person is brighter and has a DIFFERENT color than the background further away. This is your own perception of the Aura. The longer you concentrate, the better you will see it. Remember, concentration on one spot increases your sensitivity by accumulating the effect of the Aura vibration reaching your eyes.

Taking a SNAPSHOT of an Aura.

After concentrating long enough to see the aura, close your eyes. For a second or two you will see the Aura ONLY. Be prepared. You have only one second or two until your photosensitive cells will stop vibrating and sending visual sensations to the brain. And if you miss is, you have to start concentrating again. Try to experiment how fast or slow you should close your eyes.

Observing auras of other people

The best is to look directly at someone’s brow chakra (third eye or wisdom eye, which is located @1.5 cm above the nose, between eyes) and aim to achieve the state of mind similar to the concentration technique described above for at least 30-60 seconds. I have tried also looking at throat and heart chakras with similar results. However, if you concentrate on someone’s chest it looks so unusual that the person concerned is usually very uneasy about it. When you look into someone’s brow chakra you can actually continue conversation.

Again, VERY softly illuminated background, with no shadows is best. With practice, any uniformly illuminated background (such as a blue sky for example) will suffice.

How to see your own Aura

Stand about 1.5 m in front of a good size mirror. In the beginning it is best if the background behind you is plain white and there are no shadows. Illumination should be VERY soft and uniform not bright. Follow instructions above for seeing Auras.

PRACTICE for at least 10-15 minutes each day to increase your sensitivity and develop Auric sight. Remember that practice is required to develop Auric sight.

Auric sight and after-images

One of the most frequently asked questions during my workshops is: “Tom, are my eyes playing tricks on me ?” The answer is no, you have just learnt to pay attention to what your eyes are capable of. Light sensors in our eyes (Red Green and Blue) are vibration sensors which are highly non-linear and they have memory. The consequence of memory is that they can oscillate for up to several seconds after the visual stimulation has been discontinued.

This memory of visual stimulation is frequently perceived as afterimage. Afterimages have a precisely the same shape as original images. Afterimage of an object surrounded by its Aura is larger than the original image. The increase in such afterimage is due to the vibration of an Aura and actually represents a “snapshot” of an Aura. It is therefore essential to focus at one spot when watching the Aura and resist temptation to change the point of focus, otherwise an image of the Aura may become confused with the afterimage of an object.

Meaning of Aura and its colors

The Aura is a reflection of our True Nature at any given moment. At this point it is perhaps necessary to explain what do I mean by “True Nature” and why some effort is necessary to “discover” it. Our society seems to emphasize symbols, stereotypes, habits, manners, superficial behavior, pretending, following others and submitting free will to some “leaders”. Our “education” seems to be based on views and expectations of people who try to control the flock.

Our True Nature is what is left when we recognize and discard all our habits, stereotypes, manners, and pretending, superficial behavior and become fully conscious, truly natural and spontaneous. Note that some people are so attached to their manners and habits that it is very hard, if not impossible, to discover who they really are. The only way to get an instant insight into their personality seems to be by watching their Aura, because the Aura shows their True Nature, behind any facade of superficial behavior.

In general, the more colorful, cleaner and brighter the Aura, the better and more spiritually advanced is the person. Also, the more uniform the energy distribution in the Aura, the healthier and more balanced the person is.

Distribution of the energy in the Aura seems to have the potential of a powerful medical diagnostic tool, but usually requires using a complex equipment. The scope of this article is to concentrate on what we can easily see with our eyes.

Our Aura surrounds the entire body, but the interpretation of colors below relates to the Aura around the head only. Meaning of colors around the head presented below suggested in the literature has been confirmed by the author. When you learn to see Aura well, you can verify it for yourself, by concentrating on certain thoughts while watching your Aura, or telling people what their thoughts are when you see their Auras.

Usually, people have one or two dominating colors (strong points) in their Aura. These colors (or their Auric pairs) will be most likely their favorite colors.

In addition to dominant colors, the Aura reflects thoughts, feelings and desires, which appear like “flashes”, “clouds” or “flames”, usually further away from the head. For example a flash of orange in the Aura indicates a thought or desire to exercise power and control. Orange as a dominant color is a sign of power and general ability to control people. Quickly changing “flashes” indicate quickly changing thoughts.

Meaning of Clean Colors of the Aura
(colors of the rainbow, bright, shiny, monochromatic colors):

Purple: indicates spiritual thoughts. Purple is never a strong point in the Aura. It appears only as temporary “clouds” and “flames”, indicating truly spiritual thoughts.

Blue: Balanced existence, sustaining life, eased nerve system, transmitting forces and energy. People with blue strong point in their Aura are relaxed, balanced and feel ready to live in a cave and survive. They are born survivors. Blue thought is a thought about relaxing the nerve system to achieve the balance of the mind or a thought about surviving. Electric blue can override any other color in the Aura, when the person is receiving and/or transmitting information in a telepathic communication. For example Michel Desmarquet, author of “Thiaoouba Prophecy“, frequently glows with the electric blue during his lectures, especially when he answers questions from the public.

Turquoise: indicates dynamic quality of being, highly energized personality, capable of projection, influencing other people. People with turquoise strong point in their Aura can do many things simultaneously and are good organizers. They feel bored when forced to concentrate on one thing. People love bosses with turquoise Auras, because such bosses explain their goals and influence their team rather than demand executing their commands. Turquoise thought is a thought about organizing and influencing others.

Green: restful, modifying energy, natural healing ability. All natural healers should have it. People with a green strong point in their Auras are natural healers. The stronger the green Aura, the better the healer. They also love gardening and usually have a “green hand” – anything grows for them. Being in a presence of a person with a strong and green Aura is a very peaceful and restful experience. Green thought indicates a restful state and healing.

Yellow: joy, freedom, non-attachment, freeing or releasing vital forces. People who glow yellow are full of inner joy, very generous and not attached to anything. Yellow halo around the head: high spiritual development. A signature of a spiritual teacher. Do not accept spiritual teachings from anyone who does not have such a yellow halo. Buddha and Christ had yellow halos extending to their arms. Today it is rare on Earth to find a person with a halo larger than 1 inch. Yellow halo appears as a result of a highly active brow chakra (which can be seen glowing with violet by many people at my workshops). Highly spiritual people stimulate the brow chakra continuously for many years, because they always have intensive spiritual thoughts in their minds. When this chakra is observed when highly active, a yellow (Auric pair) halo appears around it, surrounding the entire head. Yellow thought indicates a moment of joy and contentment.

Orange: uplifting and absorbing. Inspiring. A sign of power. Ability and/or desire to control people. When orange becomes a strong point, it usually contributes to a yellow halo, which then becomes gold, indicating not only a spiritual teacher, but a powerful spiritual teacher, someone capable of demonstrating his/her unique abilities. Orange thought is a thought about exercising power or a desire to control people.

Red: materialistic thoughts, thoughts about the physical body. Predominantly red Aura indicates materialistically oriented person.

Pink (=purple+red): love (in a spiritual sense). To obtain a clean pink, you need to mix the purple (the highest frequency we perceive) with red (the lowest frequency). Pink Aura indicates that the person achieved a perfect balance between spiritual awareness and the material existence. The most advanced people have not only a yellow halo around the head (a permanent strong point in the Aura) but also a large pink Aura extending further away. The pink color in the Aura is quite rare on Earth and appears only as a temporary thought, never as a strong point in the Aura.

Meaning of Dirty colors:
(colors appearing darker than background more like a smoke than a glow)

Brown: unsettling, distracting, materialistic, negating spirituality.

Gray: dark thoughts, depressing thoughts, unclear intentions, presence of a dark side of personality.

Sulfur (color of a mustard): pain or lack of ease, anger

White: serious disease, artificial stimulation (drugs). Why does the white color in the Aura indicate problems? White color is like a noise, rather than a set of harmonious tones (monochromatic colors). It is impossible to “tune” the noise to an orchestra playing harmonious music, hence the white Aura indicates a lack of harmony in the body and mind. Nature, which we are a part of, is harmonious. This harmony comes in discrete vibration “tones” or harmonics, partially described by the modern quantum physics.
Several hours before the death, the Aura becomes white, and greatly increases in intensity. For this reason in most cultures “death” is depicted in WHITE (not black), because in the past, people could actually see a white Aura before death. It seems that our ancestors knew much more than we are prepared to admit.

Matching your aura with environment

When we match vibrational frequencies (spectra) of what we wear with these emitted naturally by our body and mind we seem to create conditions to experience a state of harmony which is quite unique. The effect can be compared to “tuning” of a musical instrument. Without tuning, all you can make with the instrument is noise, rather than a harmonious music. Essentially there are 3 techniques for matching you Aura with surroundings:

  1. Matching your strong point. When we learn what are “strong points” (dominant colors) in our own Aura we can attempt to match our surroundings or clothes with our Aura. Re-decorating our home to achieve a better match will result in a positive stimulation of our psyche and will help to promote our well being in many aspects. According to what Nature does to stimulate us, we should use Auric color pairs aiming for such a match. For example if your Aura is predominantly green, you should use green as well as a light pink in your decorations or apparels.
  2. Match our surroundings to the frequencies of thoughts. Frequencies of thoughts were described in the Section dealing with meaning of colors in the Aura. For example, if you think about relaxing your mind (a blue thought) blue surroundings will amplify your thought. Note, that when you come out of the house in the morning and the sky is perfectly blue – you feel relaxed before you have the time to think about anything else. This is because any thought in the direction of relaxing the mind is assisted by blue vibration of the sky. When the sky is gray, you have depressing thoughts before you notice it. Note that blue jeans fashion is very popular, because it assists us in achieving a relaxed mind. Trying to promote brown jeans may prove quite useless.
  3. Match the frequency distribution along the body. This seems to be the Ultimate Natural stimulation, but requires specially designed clothes such as the Chakra Shirt. Results seem to be quite similar to the action of the acupuncture, but instead of needles a set of 16 key colors is used. Some spectacular improvements in people’s bio-energy field (Aura) have been observed within minutes of putting it on.
In any case, use of clean, near monochromatic (rainbow) colors seems essential. They can be subtle and delicate, but they should contain a distinctly clean “rainbow” harmonics of vibration. 

Left: Improvement to human bioenergy field after a few minutes of

 

bioresonant color stimulation. Composite reconstruction of human bioenergy field using the method of Korotkov. 

Suppressing the Aura

Things which seem to reduce, muffle or distort your bio-energy (Aura) are:

 

  • FEAR, stress, anxiety, hatred, envy, jealousy or any other negative thought or feeling
  • Physical crisis in your body – disease, artificial stimulation (drugs) etc.. These can show a temporary increase in the aura size – this effect is similar to the effect of your body raising the temperature during sickness. You need to learn to READ the Aura to diagnose such a crisis. Most likely such increased Aura will be white.
  • Clothes and the environment clashing with your Aura. Dull colored clothes absorb your bio-energy rather than harmoniously enhancing it. It is interesting to note that males on Earth die much earlier than females, regardless of their cultural and ethnic background, diet etc. In my opinion it is related to the fact that males dress in black or gray colors for the most of their lives and rarely use colors. Females use much more colors in their garments and change them frequently. Interestingly, many male birds in Nature are much brighter colored than females. And THEY live longer. Nature always gives us a hint. All we need to do is observe it and adopt ideas from it. An immediate effect of wearing gray, black or brown clothes seems that that they make you tired quicker. Have you noticed that young people today look MUCH OLDER than they should?

Isn’t it logical that we should avoid all of the above if possible? “Cultivating” any of the above for prolonged time can have a permanent effect on your psyche and your Aura.

Dionysian

•March 15, 2011 • Leave a Comment

Dionysus

Dionysus

Dionysian is a philosophical and literary concept, or dichotomy, based on certain features of ancient Greek mythology. Several Western philosophical and literary figures have invoked this dichotomy in critical and creative works, including Plutarch, Friedrich Nietzsche, Carl Jung, Franz Kafka, Robert A. Heinlein, Ruth Benedict, Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, singers Jim Morrison and Iggy Pop, literary critic G. Wilson Knight, Ayn Rand, Stephen King, Michael Pollan, Diane Wakoski, Umberto Eco and cultural critic Camille Paglia.

In Greek mythology, Apollo and Dionysus are both sons of Zeus. Apollo is the god of the Sun, dreams, reason, and plastic visual arts while Dionysus is the god of wine, music, ecstasy, and intoxication. In the modern literary usage of the concept, the contrast between Apollo and Dionysus symbolizes principles of collectivism versus individualism, light versus darkness, or civilization versus primitivism. The ancient Greeks did not consider the two gods to be opposites or rivals. However, Parnassus, the mythical home of poetry and all art, was strongly associated with each of the two gods in separate legends.

German philosophy

Although the use of the concepts of Apollonian and Dionysian is famously related to Nietzsche‘s The Birth of Tragedy, the terms were used before him in Prussia.[1] The poet Hölderlin used it, while Winckelmann talked of Bacchus, the god of wine.

Nietzsche’s usage

Nietzsche’s aesthetic usage of the concepts, which was later developed philosophically, was first developed in his book The Birth of Tragedy, which he published in 1872. His major premise here was that the fusion of Dionysian and Apollonian “Kunsttrieben” (“artistic impulses”) forms dramatic arts, or tragedies. He goes on to argue that that has not been achieved since the ancient Greek tragedians. Nietzsche is adamant that the works of above all Aeschylus, and also Sophocles, represent the apex of artistic creation, the true realization of tragedy; it is with Euripides, he states, that tragedy begins its “Untergang” (literally “going under”, meaning decline, deterioration, downfall, death, etc.). Nietzsche objects to Euripides’ use of Socratic rationalism in his tragedies, claiming that the infusion of ethics and reason robs tragedy of its foundation, namely the fragile balance of the Dionysian and Apollonian.

The relationship between the Apollonian and Dionysian juxtapositions is apparent, Nietzsche claimed in The Birth of Tragedy, in the interplay of Greek Tragedy: the tragic hero of the drama, the main protagonist, struggles to make order (in the Apollonian sense) of his unjust and chaotic (Dionysian) Fate, though he dies unfulfilled in the end. For the audience of such a drama, Nietzsche claimed, this tragedy allows us to sense an underlying essence, what he called the “Primordial Unity”, which revives our Dionysian nature – which is almost indescribably pleasurable. Though he later dropped this concept saying it was “…burdened with all the errors of youth” (Attempt at Self Criticism, §2), the overarching theme was a sort of metaphysical solace or connection to the heart of creation, so to speak.

Different from Kant’s idea of the sublime, the Dionysian is all-inclusive rather than alienating to the viewer as a sublimating experience. The sublime needs critical distance, whereas the Dionysian demands a closeness of experience. According to Nietzsche, the critical distance, which separates man from his closest emotions, originates in Apollonian ideals, which in turn separate him from his essential connection with self. The Dionysian embraces the chaotic nature of such experience as all-important; not just on its own, but as it is intimately connected with the Apollonian. The Dionysian magnifies man, but only so far as he realizes that he is one and the same with all ordered human experience. The godlike unity of the Dionysian experience is of utmost importance in viewing the Dionysian as it is related to the Apollonian because it emphasizes the harmony that can be found within one’s chaotic experiences.

Old Persian

•November 27, 2010 • Leave a Comment

Old Persian
1) The linguistic setting of Old Persian

1.

Old Persian is the name applied to the Persian language used in the cuneiform inscriptions of the Achaemenian dynasty; it can be localized as the language of the southwestern Persia, or Persis in the narrower sense, and was the vernacular speech of the Achaemenian rulers. The OP inscriptions are commonly accompanied also by translations into Elamite and Accadian, engraved in other types of cuneiform writing, and sometimes by an Aramaic version or an Egyptian hieroglyphic version. Linguistically, OP belongs to the Iranian branch of Indo-Iranian or Aryan, which is one of the main divisions of the Indo-European family of languages.

2.

The Iranianian Languages are, like many other sets of languages, divisible on a chronological basis into three periods: Old Persian, Middle Iranian, and New Iranian.
Old Iranian includes two languages represented by texts, Old Persian and Avestan, and a number of other dialects which are but very slighty known.
Old Persian is known by inscriptional texts found in Persis, at Persepolis and the nearby Naqsh-i Rustam and Murghab (Pasargadae); in Elam, at Susa; in Media, at Hamadan and the not too distant Behistan and Elvend; in Armenia, at Van; and along the line of the Suez Canal. They are mainly inscriptions of Darius the Great (521-486 b.c.) and Xerxes (486-65); but others, mostly in a corrupted from the language, carry the line down to Artaxerxes III (359-38).

3.

Among the less known Old Iranian languages the most important was Median, known only from glosses, place and personal names, and its developments in Middle Persian, apart from borrowings in OP, which are of considerable importance for the understanding of OP itself. Others were the language of the Carduchi, presumably the linguistic ancestor of modern Kurdish; Partian, later the language of a great empire which contended against Rome in the time just before and after the beginning ot the Christian era; Sogdian in the northeast, ancestor of the medieval Sogdian; Scythian, the language or languages of the varius tribes known in OP as Saka, located to the east of the Caspian and north of Parthia and Sogdiana, but also to the west of the Caspian on the steppes north of the Euxine Sea (Black Sea).

4.

Dialect mixture in the old Persian inscriptions. Like most or perhaps all other series of documents, the OP inscriptions are not in pure OP dialect, free from admixture from outside. They contain the expected borrowings of names of persons and places, and presumably of some cultural materials. The Aq ura ‘Assyria’, Babiruy ‘Babylon’,Mudraya ‘Egypt’ are from semitic; Izala (a district in Assyria), Dubala (a district in Babylonia), Labanana ‘Mt. Lebanon’, Haldita- (name of an Armenian) betray their non-Iranian character by l; a few words lack of convincing IE etymology, such as sinkabruy ‘carnelian’, q armiy ‘timber’, yaka (a kind of wood), skauq iy ‘weak, lowly’, or are obvious borrowings, such as mayka- ‘inflated skin’ from Aramaic. But the main outside influence is that of the Median dialect, seen in phonetic and lexical differences, perhaps also in variant grammatical forms. Aramaic also seems to have had a certain influences on the phrasing and the syntax. There is no evidence that OP itself, at the time of the inscriptions, possessed a literature of any kind apart from these inscriptions themselves.

5.

The Median Dialect was the language of the great Median Empire, which at the death of Cyaxares in 584 extended from Iran to the Halys River; the last Median ruler was Astyages son of Cyaxares, who in 559 was conquered and deposed by his grandson Cyrus, son of Cambyses King of Persis and of Mandane daughter of Astyages. The new ruler naturally took over the Median chancellery and the Median royal titles, and their influence is still seen in the language of the OP inscriptions of Darius and his followers.

6.

Aramaic Influence. Aramaic, a Semitic language, was the international language of southwestern Asia from the middle of the eighth century B.C.; speaker of Aramaic were in charge of all archives for some centuries thereafter. As OP had no developed literary style at the time of the inscriptions, it is to be expected that the style of the inscriptions should reflect the style of Aramaic; and it does. Notable are the short sentences, with repetition of all essential words; certain of the official titles; and the anacoluthic definition of place and personal names.

2) The Script of Old Persian

1.

The Script of the Old Persian inscription is, as we have said, of the cuneiform type: that is, the characters are made of strokes which can be impressed on soft materials by a stylus having an angled end. The OP inscriptions, being on hard materials, must have been made with engraving tools with which the strokes impressed on soft materials were imitated. There was no tradition from antiquity as to the significance of the characters, nor was any OP inscription accompanied by a version in a previously known system of writing; modern scholars were therefore obliged to start from the very beginning in the task of decipherment.

2.

Early steps in the decipherment. OP inscriptions and writing are mentioned in a number of ancient authors, from Herodotus onward, and are remarked upon and described by certain modern travelers early in the seventeenth century, who published parts of inscriptions from Persepolis in the accounts of their travels. The first inscription to be piblished in complete form was DPc(Darius, Persepolis c), given by Chardin in 1711. Better copies of several were given in 1778 by Carsen Niebuhr, who recognized that the inscriptions were composed in three systems of writing, and that the writing ran from left to right: the direction of the writing was shown by two copies of XPe(Xerxes, Persepolis e) with somewhat differing line-divisions. O.G. Tychsen in 1798 discovered that the three systems of writing represented three different languages, and that a recurring diagonal wedge in the simplest of the three types was a word-divider; but he wrongly assigned the inscriptions to the Parthian period. Friedrich Muenter in 1802 indepently identified the word-divider, and thought that a frequently recurring series of characters must be the word for ‘king’; he assigned that inscriptions to the Achaemenian period.

3.

G.F. Grotefend of Frankfurt in 1802 applied himself to the problem of the decipherment, and by a comparison of DPa and XPe(in Niebuhr’s copies) he made the fist real progress. He assumed that the inscriptions were inscriptions of the Achaemenian kings, that they consisted essentially of the names and titles of the kings, and that those in the simplest type of writing were in Persian, closely resembling the language of the Avesta. He was helped by Silvestre de Sacy’s recent decipherment of the royal titles in Pahlavi,’…, great king, king of kings, king of Iran and non-Iran ,son of …, great king,’ etc., which guided him as to what to expect. To facilitate the exposition, we set the two inscriptions in parallel columns:

DPa 

Darayavauy :
xyayaqiya : vazraka :
xyayaqiya :
xyayaqiyanam :
xyayaqiya : dahyunam :
Viytaspahya :

puVa :  Haxamaniyiya :
hya : imam : tacaram :
akunauy

XPe 

xyayarya :
xyayaqiya : vazraka :
xyayaqiya :
xyayaqiyanam :

Darayavhauy :
xyayaqiyahya :
puVa :  Haxamaniyiya :

Grotefend recognized correctly that the names of two different kings were followed by titles, ‘great king, king of kings’, and then a third similar title in the one which was lacking in the other; that then followed the name of the king’s father, who was the same person in one inscription as the king in the other, and that in the other the fother did not bear the title king. He decided upon Darius, whose father Hystaspes had not been king, rather than under Cyrus, since Cyrus and his father Cambyses had names beginning with the same letter whereas the corresponding two names in the inscription began with different characters; he thought the name of Artaxerxes to be too long. Thus he saw in the three names Hystaspes, Darius, Xerxes, in the transliteration of which he used the later Iranian pronunciations:

Grotefend 

g      o      sch      t      a      s      p
d      a        r        h      e      u     sch
kh     sch    h        a      r     sch     a

Correct 

vi      i      ya      ta      a      sa      pa
da     a      ra      ya     va      u       ya
xa     ya     ya      a      ra       ya      a

Thus he had identified, for all but the inherent a the characters a, u, x (his kh), t, d, p, r, s, y (his sch), and elsewhere he identified f. But his reliance on the later pronunciations misled him sorely, and of the 22 different signs in DPa and XPe he got only 10 correctly, and even for two of these he admitted two values each (a and e, p and b). Apart from the three names, ‘king’ and ‘great’ were the only words which he idetified correctly; later (1815) he identified the name ‘Cyrus’ in CMa(Cyrus, Murghab a). But the remainder of his readings, even in these inscriptions, is sorry stuff, and he could never realize in later years that the foundations which he had laid had been built upon and improved.

Old Persian

4.

The completion of the decipherment. After a gap of twenty-one years other scholars took up the task, but progress was mainly in identifying individual characters and single words. The notable steps in the decipherment were the following: Lassen in 1836 supplied the vowel a after many consonants; that is, he realized that these consonants had an inherent a. Lassen in 1839 noted that some characters were used only before i and others only before u; Rawlinson in 1846, Hincks in 1846, and Oppert in 1847 independently realized that these consonants had inherent i and inherent u. Oppert at the same time discovered that diphthongs were indicated by i or u after a consonants with inherent a, and that n and m were omitted before consonants.

5.

The Old-Persian syllabary. The inscriptions composed in the old Persian language are inscribed on various hard material in a syllabary, each character having the value of a vowel or of a consonant plus a vowel. To the 36 characters of this nature must be added 5 ideograms, one ligature of ideogram and case ending, the world-divider, and numerical symbols.
This syllabary quite obviously goes back to the cuneiform syllabary of Akkadian, but its simplicity as compared with its parent syllabary shows that it has been specially drawn up for its present purpose. There is no conclusive evidence how the Akkadian characters were utilized and how the new characters received OP values; though several scholars have advanced theories.
It is uncertain also when this old Persian system of writing was invented. The extant inscriptions are largely those of Darius I and of Xerxes, and it is tempting to ascribe the invention to the orders of Darius when he wished to record the events of his accention, on the Rock of Behistan; but there are three inscriptions of Cyrus, as well as one each purporting to be of Ariaramnes and of Arsames. These last two may have been set up as labels to small monuments or other objects of a later period; the orthography points to aproximately the time of Artaxerxes II. Of the inscriptions of Cyrus, one is very fragmentary, and the other two are brief labels; yet as they were inscribed in the palace which belonged to Cyrus, at Pasargadae (Murghab), they show that the OP cuneiform syllabary existed and was in use in Cyrus’s time.

3) More informations

1.

Declension in OP. The OP noun, along with the pronoun and the adjective, shows approximately the expected assortment of forms.
All the cases found in Sanskrit and Avestan are found in OP, except the dative, which has been lost, its functions being assumed by the genitive form. The Ablative has no distinctive form, but has been merged in the instrumental and the locative either by phonetic development or by analogy; except for one form, babirauy, which is identical with the genitive, as in Sanskrit. Similarly the accusative plural has become identical with the nominative, either by phonetic process or by analogy, except in the enclitic pronouns which have no nominative form.
Both singular and plural numbers are represented in OP, and there are a few dual forms.

2.

The Persian calendar and Behistan. In Behistan 4.4, Darius states that the 19 battles recorded by him in the first three columns of the inscription, with the attendant capture of 9 usupers, took place hamahyaya q arda ‘in one and the same year’. For eighteen of the battles dates are given in the Persian calendar, with translation into the Elamite and the Akkadian. The difficulty has been to arrange these dates within one year, beginning with the killing of Gaumata, the false Smerdis; for the order of the months in the Persian calendar, and in the other calendars, was by no means certain. Now, however, with evidence from additional Akkadian and Elamite tablets which have no Old Persian version, Arno Poebel has succeeded in reconstructing the lists of month, as follows:

Resources:

Old Persian, Roland G. Kent, New Haven, 1953

wikipedia.org

www.bible-history.com

lcweb2.loc.gov

•November 26, 2010 • Leave a Comment

Old Persian 1) The linguistic setting of Old Persian 1. Old Persian is the name applied to the Persian language used in the cuneiform inscriptions of the Achaemenian dynasty; it can be localized as the language of the southwestern Persia, or Persis in the narrower sense, and was the vernacular speech of the Achaemenian rulers. The OP inscriptions are commonly accompanied also by translations into Elamite and Accadian, engraved in other types of cuneiform writing, and sometimes by an Aramaic version or an Egyptian hieroglyphic version. Linguistically, OP belongs to the Iranian branch of Indo-Iranian or Aryan, which is one of the main divisions of the Indo-European family of languages. 2. The Iranianian Languages are, like many other sets of languages, divisible on a chronological basis into three periods: Old Persian, Middle Iranian, and New Iranian. Old Iranian includes two languages represented by texts, Old Persian and Avestan, and a number of other dialects which are but very slighty known. Old Persian is known by inscriptional texts found in Persis, at Persepolis and the nearby Naqsh-i Rustam and Murghab (Pasargadae); in Elam, at Susa; in Media, at Hamadan and the not too distant Behistan and Elvend; in Armenia, at Van; and along the line of the Suez Canal. They are mainly inscriptions of Darius the Great (521-486 b.c.) and Xerxes (486-65); but others, mostly in a corrupted from the language, carry the line down to Artaxerxes III (359-38). 3. Among the less known Old Iranian languages the most important was Median, known only from glosses, place and personal names, and its developments in Middle Persian, apart from borrowings in OP, which are of considerable importance for the understanding of OP itself. Others were the language of the Carduchi, presumably the linguistic ancestor of modern Kurdish; Partian, later the language of a great empire which contended against Rome in the time just before and after the beginning ot the Christian era; Sogdian in the northeast, ancestor of the medieval Sogdian; Scythian, the language or languages of the varius tribes known in OP as Saka, located to the east of the Caspian and north of Parthia and Sogdiana, but also to the west of the Caspian on the steppes north of the Euxine Sea (Black Sea). 4. Dialect mixture in the old Persian inscriptions. Like most or perhaps all other series of documents, the OP inscriptions are not in pure OP dialect, free from admixture from outside. They contain the expected borrowings of names of persons and places, and presumably of some cultural materials. The Aq ura ‘Assyria’, Babiruy ‘Babylon’,Mudraya ‘Egypt’ are from semitic; Izala (a district in Assyria), Dubala (a district in Babylonia), Labanana ‘Mt. Lebanon’, Haldita- (name of an Armenian) betray their non-Iranian character by l; a few words lack of convincing IE etymology, such as sinkabruy ‘carnelian’, q armiy ‘timber’, yaka (a kind of wood), skauq iy ‘weak, lowly’, or are obvious borrowings, such as mayka- ‘inflated skin’ from Aramaic. But the main outside influence is that of the Median dialect, seen in phonetic and lexical differences, perhaps also in variant grammatical forms. Aramaic also seems to have had a certain influences on the phrasing and the syntax. There is no evidence that OP itself, at the time of the inscriptions, possessed a literature of any kind apart from these inscriptions themselves. 5. The Median Dialect was the language of the great Median Empire, which at the death of Cyaxares in 584 extended from Iran to the Halys River; the last Median ruler was Astyages son of Cyaxares, who in 559 was conquered and deposed by his grandson Cyrus, son of Cambyses King of Persis and of Mandane daughter of Astyages. The new ruler naturally took over the Median chancellery and the Median royal titles, and their influence is still seen in the language of the OP inscriptions of Darius and his followers. 6. Aramaic Influence. Aramaic, a Semitic language, was the international language of southwestern Asia from the middle of the eighth century B.C.; speaker of Aramaic were in charge of all archives for some centuries thereafter. As OP had no developed literary style at the time of the inscriptions, it is to be expected that the style of the inscriptions should reflect the style of Aramaic; and it does. Notable are the short sentences, with repetition of all essential words; certain of the official titles; and the anacoluthic definition of place and personal names. 2) The Script of Old Persian 1. The Script of the Old Persian inscription is, as we have said, of the cuneiform type: that is, the characters are made of strokes which can be impressed on soft materials by a stylus having an angled end. The OP inscriptions, being on hard materials, must have been made with engraving tools with which the strokes impressed on soft materials were imitated. There was no tradition from antiquity as to the significance of the characters, nor was any OP inscription accompanied by a version in a previously known system of writing; modern scholars were therefore obliged to start from the very beginning in the task of decipherment. 2. Early steps in the decipherment. OP inscriptions and writing are mentioned in a number of ancient authors, from Herodotus onward, and are remarked upon and described by certain modern travelers early in the seventeenth century, who published parts of inscriptions from Persepolis in the accounts of their travels. The first inscription to be piblished in complete form was DPc(Darius, Persepolis c), given by Chardin in 1711. Better copies of several were given in 1778 by Carsen Niebuhr, who recognized that the inscriptions were composed in three systems of writing, and that the writing ran from left to right: the direction of the writing was shown by two copies of XPe(Xerxes, Persepolis e) with somewhat differing line-divisions. O.G. Tychsen in 1798 discovered that the three systems of writing represented three different languages, and that a recurring diagonal wedge in the simplest of the three types was a word-divider; but he wrongly assigned the inscriptions to the Parthian period. Friedrich Muenter in 1802 indepently identified the word-divider, and thought that a frequently recurring series of characters must be the word for ‘king’; he assigned that inscriptions to the Achaemenian period. 3. G.F. Grotefend of Frankfurt in 1802 applied himself to the problem of the decipherment, and by a comparison of DPa and XPe(in Niebuhr’s copies) he made the fist real progress. He assumed that the inscriptions were inscriptions of the Achaemenian kings, that they consisted essentially of the names and titles of the kings, and that those in the simplest type of writing were in Persian, closely resembling the language of the Avesta. He was helped by Silvestre de Sacy’s recent decipherment of the royal titles in Pahlavi,’…, great king, king of kings, king of Iran and non-Iran ,son of …, great king,’ etc., which guided him as to what to expect. To facilitate the exposition, we set the two inscriptions in parallel columns: DPa Darayavauy : xyayaqiya : vazraka : xyayaqiya : xyayaqiyanam : xyayaqiya : dahyunam : Viytaspahya : puVa : Haxamaniyiya : hya : imam : tacaram : akunauy XPe xyayarya : xyayaqiya : vazraka : xyayaqiya : xyayaqiyanam : Darayavhauy : xyayaqiyahya : puVa : Haxamaniyiya : Grotefend recognized correctly that the names of two different kings were followed by titles, ‘great king, king of kings’, and then a third similar title in the one which was lacking in the other; that then followed the name of the king’s father, who was the same person in one inscription as the king in the other, and that in the other the fother did not bear the title king. He decided upon Darius, whose father Hystaspes had not been king, rather than under Cyrus, since Cyrus and his father Cambyses had names beginning with the same letter whereas the corresponding two names in the inscription began with different characters; he thought the name of Artaxerxes to be too long. Thus he saw in the three names Hystaspes, Darius, Xerxes, in the transliteration of which he used the later Iranian pronunciations: Grotefend g o sch t a s p d a r h e u sch kh sch h a r sch a Correct vi i ya ta a sa pa da a ra ya va u ya xa ya ya a ra ya a Thus he had identified, for all but the inherent a the characters a, u, x (his kh), t, d, p, r, s, y (his sch), and elsewhere he identified f. But his reliance on the later pronunciations misled him sorely, and of the 22 different signs in DPa and XPe he got only 10 correctly, and even for two of these he admitted two values each (a and e, p and b). Apart from the three names, ‘king’ and ‘great’ were the only words which he idetified correctly; later (1815) he identified the name ‘Cyrus’ in CMa(Cyrus, Murghab a). But the remainder of his readings, even in these inscriptions, is sorry stuff, and he could never realize in later years that the foundations which he had laid had been built upon and improved. Old Persian 4. The completion of the decipherment. After a gap of twenty-one years other scholars took up the task, but progress was mainly in identifying individual characters and single words. The notable steps in the decipherment were the following: Lassen in 1836 supplied the vowel a after many consonants; that is, he realized that these consonants had an inherent a. Lassen in 1839 noted that some characters were used only before i and others only before u; Rawlinson in 1846, Hincks in 1846, and Oppert in 1847 independently realized that these consonants had inherent i and inherent u. Oppert at the same time discovered that diphthongs were indicated by i or u after a consonants with inherent a, and that n and m were omitted before consonants. 5. The Old-Persian syllabary. The inscriptions composed in the old Persian language are inscribed on various hard material in a syllabary, each character having the value of a vowel or of a consonant plus a vowel. To the 36 characters of this nature must be added 5 ideograms, one ligature of ideogram and case ending, the world-divider, and numerical symbols. This syllabary quite obviously goes back to the cuneiform syllabary of Akkadian, but its simplicity as compared with its parent syllabary shows that it has been specially drawn up for its present purpose. There is no conclusive evidence how the Akkadian characters were utilized and how the new characters received OP values; though several scholars have advanced theories. It is uncertain also when this old Persian system of writing was invented. The extant inscriptions are largely those of Darius I and of Xerxes, and it is tempting to ascribe the invention to the orders of Darius when he wished to record the events of his accention, on the Rock of Behistan; but there are three inscriptions of Cyrus, as well as one each purporting to be of Ariaramnes and of Arsames. These last two may have been set up as labels to small monuments or other objects of a later period; the orthography points to aproximately the time of Artaxerxes II. Of the inscriptions of Cyrus, one is very fragmentary, and the other two are brief labels; yet as they were inscribed in the palace which belonged to Cyrus, at Pasargadae (Murghab), they show that the OP cuneiform syllabary existed and was in use in Cyrus’s time. 3) More informations 1. Declension in OP. The OP noun, along with the pronoun and the adjective, shows approximately the expected assortment of forms. All the cases found in Sanskrit and Avestan are found in OP, except the dative, which has been lost, its functions being assumed by the genitive form. The Ablative has no distinctive form, but has been merged in the instrumental and the locative either by phonetic development or by analogy; except for one form, babirauy, which is identical with the genitive, as in Sanskrit. Similarly the accusative plural has become identical with the nominative, either by phonetic process or by analogy, except in the enclitic pronouns which have no nominative form. Both singular and plural numbers are represented in OP, and there are a few dual forms. 2. The Persian calendar and Behistan. In Behistan 4.4, Darius states that the 19 battles recorded by him in the first three columns of the inscription, with the attendant capture of 9 usupers, took place hamahyaya q arda ‘in one and the same year’. For eighteen of the battles dates are given in the Persian calendar, with translation into the Elamite and the Akkadian. The difficulty has been to arrange these dates within one year, beginning with the killing of Gaumata, the false Smerdis; for the order of the months in the Persian calendar, and in the other calendars, was by no means certain. Now, however, with evidence from additional Akkadian and Elamite tablets which have no Old Persian version, Arno Poebel has succeeded in reconstructing the lists of month, as follows: Resources: Old Persian, Roland G. Kent, New Haven, 1953 wikipedia.org http://www.bible-history.com lcweb2.loc.gov

What can a fetus hear inside the womb?

•May 12, 2010 • Leave a Comment

موسيقي و پايه گذاري آن در آيين زرتشت

•April 20, 2010 • Leave a Comment

موسيقي و پايه گذاري آن در آيين زرتشت

اشو زرتشت برای نخستین بار موسیقی مذهبی را در دنیا پایه‌گذاری کرد و شادی به عنوان یک اصل در آیین زرتشت در آمد.

شواهد حاکی از آن است که موسیقی در آيين زرتشت گسترش قابل توجهی به ویژه در مراسم مذهبی داشته است .

در بخش اصلی کتاب زرتشت یا اوستا به نام” گاتها” مجموعه ای از شعر آزاد (هجایی) است که با آهنگ و به صورت نیایش (هیمن) خوانده می شد. همچنین بخش دیگر اوستا به نام “یشت” معنی آواز یا آواز نیایش گونه را دارد. گاتها اواسط کتاب یسنا قرار دارد که ۱۷ سرود مذهبی است که از سروده های خود زرتشت است.

تصور می شود واژه “گاه” در موسیقی سنتی ایران به شکل پسوند در نام دستگاهها و ردیفها، یادگار همان “گات” باستانی باشد که در فارسی میانه یا پهلوی “گاس” به معنی سرود و سپس در فارسی دری به شکل گاه در آمده است.

بنابراین در اوستا بارها توصیه شده است که گاتها را با آواز بخوانند، از این رو زمزمه یا خواندن آهسته در نظر زرتشتیان اهمیت ویژه ای دارد  این بود که زرتشتیان یا آریاییها، دعاهای خود را که موزون و آهنگین بود، می سرودند و معتقد بودند اگر چنین باشد، تأثیر آنها به مراتب بیشتر می شود.

موسیقی مذهبی را نخستین بار زرتشت به کار گرفت و هنوز هم در دنیا از الحان او استفاده می ‌کنند و این امر در آیین زرتشت به صورت یک اصل در آمد، به طوری که در” هفتن یشت ” شادی نکردن را به عنوان یک گناه به شمار می آورد.


سروش که در اوستا به صورت “سروشه” از آن یاد شده و در زبان پهلوی به شکل سروش در آمده، نام فرشته ای بود که در آیین زرتشت جایگاه والایی داشت و روز هفدهم هر ماه شمسی را منسوب به او می دانستند. در آن روز به نیایشگاهها رفته و دعا می خواندند، در این روز تفسیر و ترجمه پهلوی اوستا را نیز با آهنگ و آواز خوش می خواندند .

دوست !

•April 20, 2010 • Leave a Comment

همه ی ما يكي بوديم ، فاصله اي بينمون نبود ، افكارمون از هم جدا نبود .و يكپارچه بوديم.هنگامي كه اولين ارواح از اصل جدا شدند مثل پرتو های نور از خورشید ، جستجو براي بازگشت به تكامل(!) آغاز شد. تنهايي اولين درد شد و اولين آرزو مصاحبت با مونسي . انگار  آدم همواره به دنبال چيزي براي كامل شدن بوده اما ماهيتش را به خاطر نداشته اما همیشه در جست و جو بوده ؛ (اینکه هر کس در این جست و جو به کی و چی میرسه بماند) ! . هر چند  كار و سرگرمي ها ي روزمره شاید انقدر حواس ما رو پرت كردند كه ديگر متوجه احساس دلتنگي مان نيستيم و تا حدودي فراموش كرديم … شاید !!  و يا به نحوي اين احساس را سركوب مي كنيم …بااين حال صداي نرم و آرامي هنوز هم در گوشمان نجوا مي كند ، حتي اگر این صدا رو نشنويم . تمایل به رسیدن به خورشید به اون اصل در همه ی ما هست … اینکه چقدر به این نجوا گوش کنیم و بهش پاسخ بدیم به خودمون بستگی داره … به اینکه چقدر درگیر این زندگی خاکی نشدیم … به اینکه چقدر یادمون هست که شاید ما موجودی خاکی باشیم ، اما وجودی آسمانی هستیم

 
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